Blood Pressure measurement Methods | Instrument used

Blood Pressure measurement Methods | Instrument used

What is blood pressure?

The blood pumping function of the heart gives a certain pressure on the wall of blood vessels, the amount of pressure on the wall of the blood vessels is known as blood pressure. Blood pressure varies as the contraction and relaxation of the heart so it is measured in two numbers that is systolic and diastolic.

Units of blood pressure measurement

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg)

What is normal blood pressure and high blood pressure?

Category SystolicDiastolic
Optimal<120<80
Normal120-12980-84
High normal130-13985-89
Grade I Hypertension140-15990-99
Grade II Hypertension 160-179100-109
Grade III Hypertension >180>110
Isolated systolic>140<90

Instruments required for blood pressure measurement  

  1. Sphygmomanometer 
  2. Stethoscope  
1) Sphygmomanometer 

Parts – Cuff, aneroid manometer gauge, inflation bulb, air release valve 

Blood Pressure measurement Methods | Instrument used
2) Stethoscope  

Parts- Earpiece, tube, bell, diaphragm 

Blood Pressure measurement Methods | Instrument used

Blood Pressure measurement Methods

Blood pressure can be measured by 2 different methods  

A) Auscultatory method  

B) Palpatory method  

A) Measurement of Blood pressure by auscultatory method

  1. Advice the patient to take rest for 5 minutes, because blood pressure may vary in tired person  
  1. Ask for patient’s consent for measuring blood pressure and explain the procedure of blood pressure measurement  
  1. After the patient allows you, expose the upper arm of the patient 
  1. With patient seated of lying down, support his or her arms comfortably at about heart level  
  1. Roll the cuff to the upper arm with center the arterial sign lies just above the brachial artery with the lower border 2.5cm just above the cubital fossa  
  1. Palpate and feel the brachial pulse in cubital fossa, medial to biceps tendon  
  1. Place the stethoscope over brachial artery lightly  
  1. Inflate the cuff slowly 5mmHg at a time until you hear a regular tapping sound, that level at which the sound begins to hear is noted as systolic blood pressure  
  1. Once the highest sound is listened and suddenly disappears from that point a continue deflate of the cuff is started  
  1. At the point which the sound again disappears  (lower than systolic) is noted at diastolic blood pressure  

In this way, systolic and diastolic blood pressure is measured and presented in a ratio (systolic/diastolic).

B) Measurement of blood pressure by palpatory method

This process does not provide confirmatory blood pressure so this process is less commonly used  

  1. Advice the patient to take rest for 5 minutes, because blood pressure may vary in tired person  
  1. Ask for patient’s consent for measuring blood pressure and explain the procedure of blood pressure measurement  
  1. After the patient allows you, expose the upper arm of the patient 
  1. With patient seated of lying down, support his or her arms comfortably at about heart level  
  1. Roll the cuff to the upper arm with center the arterial sign lies just above the brachial artery with the lower border 2.5cm just above the cubital fossa 
  1. Palpate the radial pulse, and keep your hand on patient’s radial artery to detect any changes in the pulse  
  1. Inflate the cuff in a greater degree that is assumed (nearly about 200mmHg), once the cuff is inflated the radial artery disappears  
  1. The air in the cuff is slowly released and the point at which the radial pulse is palpable is noted as systolic blood pressure  

Only systolic blood pressure can be measured by this method, so it is mainly not used.

I hope this article about methods of measuring blood pressure remains helpful for you.

Happy Learning

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