Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health is necessary to any living being for their physical and mental growth.
Current health philosophy
• Health is a fundamental human right
• Health us worldwide social goal
• Health is an intersectoral
• Health is an integral part of the development
• Health and its maintenance is a major social investment
• Health involves individual state & international responsibility
What is Health care?
Health care is a multitude of services provided to individual families and communities by agents of health service or professionals for the purpose of promoting, maintaining or restoring health. It includes 2 components “Health services” & “Health system”.
A) Health services
It is the activities done for the treatment of disease, prevention of illness, and promotion of health.
B) Health system
A Health system is defined as comprising all the organizations, institutions, and resources that are devoted to producing health actions whose primary purpose is to promote restore or maintain health.
Purpose of health care services
- To provide health services
- To reduce mortality and morbidity
- To utilize resources and technology appropriately
- To provide primary health care to every citizen
- To ensure regular health services
- to promote healthy lifestyle.
Characteristics of health care services
• Comprehensiveness of health care services
• Integration of services
• Decentralized service institutions
• Continuity of services.
• Availably and accessibility of health services.
• Community participation with an inclusive approach
• Extended in nature
Types of health care services
The different types of health care services are described are as follows
A)Traditional Health care system
It may be divided into two parts
- Health services without formal system
- Health services with formal system
1. Health services without formal system
The methods of treatment of this kind of health service are based on belief arises when goals are disappeared. This system can be grouped as
a) Provides using their knowledge, experience or learning from others. For example: sudeni
b) Providers following their ancestors to practice health services as profession. For example: Jharphuke
c) Providers having knowledge on using various herbs as medicine. For example: Vaidya
The health care providers of this kind of system are Dhami/Jharki, Ojha, Lama / purohit / Gubaju, sudeni, Baidange / Jharphuke, Vaidya/kabiraj
2. Health services with formal system
a) Ayurved system
b) Homeopathy system
a) Ayurved system
Ayurved is on of the oldest formulated system of medicine. The literal meaning of ayurved is knowledge of life however, medical point of view, it means
- Treatment and
- Science of medicine
The Ayurved system adopts the principle of tri-dosha while diagnosing, treating the disease. The tri-dosha includes vatta, pitta and kaffa. Vatta (wind) is related to the nervous system and kaffa (muscle) is related to the physical electrolyte, pitta(gall) is related to the circulatory system.
If the equilibrium among these elements gets distributed, the disease attacks the person. The principle treatment of Ayurveda includes the medicines derived from herbs and physical exercise.
- The ayurveda has been divided into 8 sections as Kaya Chikitsa tantra (general medicine), Salya tantra (surgery), Salakya tantra (ENT), Kaumar mritya tantra (pediatric), Agni tantra, Bhuta bidya (psychology), Briskyal tantra (gynaecology), Rasayan / Bajikaran.
Strengths of ayurvedic system
i. Ayurvedic has the advantage of being a holistic approach that works on the whole body.
ii. Medication in Ayurveda only comes from purely natural resources and don’t use chemicals
iii. These types of medicines don’t have any side effects
Weakness of ayurvedic system
i.There is no scientific evidence that many of the medications and healing techniques actually works for patients.
ii. This type of holistic healing process/ practice might not work for complex medical problems, where medication and advanced therapies or surgeries are required to keep the individual alive.
iii. Takes longer time to cure disease
b) Homeopathy system
Homeopathy is a system of alternative medicine created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of “ like cures like”.
A substance that causes symptoms when taken is large doses can be used in small amounts to treat those same symptoms. For example, drinking too much coffee can cause sleeplessness and agitation, so according to this principle, when made into a homeopathic medicine it could be used to treat people with these symptoms.
Homeopathic medicine has a direct effect on the immune system of the body. It has been found to be best suited and more effective to Children and aged people. All of this system, medicine should either be taken with water or swallowed directly.
Patients are given light, digestible and nutritious food while administrating the medicines. The national health policy has protected and promoted this system to make easy access to people.
Strengths of homeopathic system
i. Homeopathic medicine is prepared from natural ingredients
ii. Homeopathy has treatment even for no diagnosable diseases because medicines are not prescribed just on the basis of the disease, but the complete picture of the patient
iii. Homeopathic medicine is quite cost-effective.
iv. It works very well in psychological as well as psychiatric cases
Weakness of homeopathic system
i. Homeopathic case taking is a long time and a tedious process
ii. This man lead to the wrong prescription, prolonging the period of treatment if history is not taken properly.
iii. Homeopathy has its limitations in case. For example Hernia is not treatable by homeopathy
iv. In some chronic cases, homeopathy may take a long time to show the result
Naturopathy is the system of healing in which diseases are cured by means of all-natural and rational remedies such as light, water, air, heat, exercise, diet, and other physiological measures. Naturopathy is a combination of different methods of natural healing.
This is not the official system of medicine, but it has been well practiced by the community. Training in naturopathy is provided by the private sector. There are private hospitals, training centers, clinics, and dispensaries in the country.
Strengths of naturopathy
i. Naturopathy treatment have No sides effect
ii. They are based on nature and operates under the belief that creation has provided humans with everything they need to stay healthy
iii. Naturopathic medicine is strong in addressing chronic disease and promoting health. (address the root causes of the disease)
iv. It works in harmony with the immune system of the body.
Weakness of naturopathy
i. Naturopathy takes more time to work
ii. It is impossible to address a patient inaccurate distress
iii. The patient will have to step out of their comfort zone of junk food and learn a better way of life.
Acupuncture is a collection of procedures involving penetration of the skin with needles to stimulate a certain point on the body. It is a characteristic component of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
This world health organization (WHO) recommends Acupuncture as an effective treatment for over forty medical problems, including allergies, respiratory conditions, gastrointestinal disorders, gynecological problems, nervous conditions, and disorder of eyes, nose, and throat, and childhood illnesses.
Acupuncture has been used in the treatment of alcoholism and substance abuse. It is an effective and low-cost treatment for headaches and chronic pain, associated with problems like back injuries and arthritis.
Strengths of Acupunctures
i. There are rarely any side effects if it is carried out by a registered and well-trained practitioner
ii. Acupuncture can be performed in any age group such as children, adults, and elderly people
iii. Usually it doesn’t hurt and is done without interfering with other ongoing treatment and medication
iv. In 2003, the WHO also recognized the efficacy of Acupunctures and mentioned a list of diseases and disorders than can and could be treated with the help of Acupuncture
Weakness of Acupunctures
i. It is invasive in nature (needles piercing)
ii. Acupuncture may also cause drowsiness, loss of appetite, weakness or induce sleep
iii. Infection and injury to tissue may occur in rare cases when sterile condition is not maintained
B) Modern health care system
It represents the broad category of medical practice that is sometimes called Western medicine, evidence-based medicine or modern medicine.
It is the mainstream medical use of a pharmacologically active agent or physical interventions to treat or suppress symptoms or pathophysiologic process of disease or condition. The term allopathy has always referred to the principle of curing disease by administrating substance that produces other symptoms than the symptoms produced by a diseases.
For example a part of allopathic treatment for fever may include the use of a drug that reduces the fever, while also including a drug (such as antibiotics) that attacks, the causes of the fever (such as a bacterial infection). It is more of a diseases management approach, rather than a preventive approach. Almost all the service provided through our health care system falls under this approach.
This institution giving these services are
Public sector ➔SHP/HP/PHC, hospitals, health insurance
Private sectors ➔Private hospitals, nursing homes, polyclinics, dispensaries
Volunteers and non-profit organizations ➔NGO, INGO, community and co-operative hospitals and clinics, health clubs, social groups.
Strengths of allopathy
i. Very effective, quick results
ii. Researched and tested medicines
iii. Easily available
iv. Standards for quality maintained strictly
v. Best for emergency medical condition
Weakness of allopathy
i. Side effects
ii. Does not specific lifestyle and diet changes as compared to alternative medicine
Which health care service is commonly used by peoples and why?
Allopathy is one of the health services that is commonly used because it is the main and most widely approached type of medical service. Allopathy focuses more in the disease management approach than in a preventive approach.
People mainly choose this type of health service because it is the very effective and quick result is seen in this service. This health service has got well researched and tested medicines. This facility is a widely and easily available service.
Very critical medical conditions can also be treated by this system and it has also got best solutions for emergency conditions So, mainly people choose this type of health service.