Leadership and its types - Health Management

Leadership and its types – Health Management

Leadership 

Leadership is the quality of an individual which enables him/her in guiding, influencing and direct a group of people to bring desirable change in the organization. 

Leadership is the ability to influence toward the objective of goals. 

Types/styles of leadership 

Leadership and its types - Health Management

1. Autocratic or Authoritarian leadership 

  • In the autocratic leadership style, the leader alone makes policies, plans and decisions and tells others to follow what to do and how to do. 
  • There is centralization of authority. 
  • The followers have no participation, no decision making and their feedback is not accepted. 
  • In the absence of such a type of leader, the cohesive force may break down.  
  • Members become passive parasites and can’t do anything by themselves. 
  • The leader doesn’t delegate authority. 
  • The leader exercises complete control over the subordinates. 

Advantages 

  • Quick decision making by the leader. 
  • It provides strong motivation and reward to the leader. 
  • Effective in crisis and emergency situations.  

Disadvantage 

  • It includes strictness and negative motivational style to co-workers. 
  • Decrease efficiency in the organization 
  • Less focuses on subordinates’ creative ideas 
  • Community is threatened 
  • No development of subordinates takes place 

2. Democratic leadership style 

  • The democratic style of leadership is also known as the participative approach 
  • The entire group involves and accepts their responsibility for goal setting and achievement in this style 
  • Subordinates have considerable freedom of action 
  • He / She encourages maximum interaction and interpersonal relationship 
  • The leader is there to develop a sense of responsibility among the member to work toward the achievement of the group goal 

Advantages 

  • Increase better decision making 
  • Increase employees’ satisfaction 
  • Increase group co-operation 
  • Opportunity to utilize their capabilities 
  • Increase productivity 

Disadvantages 

  • Time-consuming 
  • Participation may not be effective 
  • Subordinates may not take responsibility 

3. Free Rein/ laissez-faire type of leadership 

  • In the free rein type of leadership, the leader exercises no power and puts no control over the group. 
  • He/ she only provides information, materials and facilities to the group and enables them to accomplish the objective. 
  • This does nothing “type of leadership who exercises no control and provides no guidance” 
  • The members speak or do it in the way they like 
  • Member’s actions fell out of the tract 
  • This type of leadership is effective for research-oriented jobs 

Advantages 

  • Increase job satisfaction among the subordinates 
  • The potential of subordinates is fully utilized 
  • It provides the maximum possible scope for the development of subordinates. 

Disadvantages 

  • It ignores the contribution of the leaders 
  • Less guidance and support by leaders 

Different between types/styles of Leadership. 

S.N Point of difference Autocratic style Democratic style  Laissez Fair Style 
1. Decision making  Leader only makes decision Leader makes decision in consultation with sub-ordinates  Sub-ordinates themselves make decision  
2. Communication One way i.e., downward communication  Two-way communication  Free flow communication 
3. Motivation technique Fear and punishment (negative motivation) Reward and involvement (positive motivation) Self-direction and self-control 
4. Delegation of authority No delegation  Delegation of authority to some extent Complete delegation of authority 
5. Focus Leader control Group centred Individual centred 
6. Role of leader Provides direction Maintains teamwork  Provide support and resources 
7. Growth and development of employees  No scope of initiative and creativity ‘I’ style Scope of initiative and creativity ‘We’ style Full scope of initiative and creativity ‘Your’ style 
8. Discipline Obedience of order and discipline Interchange of ideas Self-discipline or control 

Characteristics features of good leadership 

  • Ability to inspire 
  • Problem-solving 
  • Understanding human behaviour 
  • Intelligence 
  • Self-confidence 
  • Initiative 
  • Sence of cooperation 
  • Emotional stability 
  • Flexibility 

Indication/ characteristics and remedies for low motivation of staff 

Some indication/characteristics for low motivation of staff are: – 

  • It may be expressed by staff or other 
  • It may in the form of written or oral grievances 
  • It may be due to valid or untrue reasons 
  • It may relate to organizational work like an increase in absenteeism, rejecting additional work, refusing meetings etc. 
  • It may affect the performance or work. 

Remedies 

  • Provide authority and responsibility if needed 
  • Review salary, benefits and change as needed 
  • Make sure you (manager) are clear about what is the cause of low motivation 
  • Reduce the communication gap between the staff 
  • Provide opportunities of staff development and cause opportunities including training, visits, etc. 

Theories of motivation and change 

A. Maslow’s Need Theory 

 Abraham Maslow advocated the hierarchy of needs theory. He hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of 5 needs and they are followed. 

1. Physiological need 

  •  They include basic survival needs for food, water, clothing, shelters, (stable income in an organizational setting) 

2. Safety Need 

  • They consist of needs for protection from physical and emotional harm. 
  • In an organization, provident fund, pension plan, and health insurance satisfy safety needs, personal security, permanency of the job, etc. 

3. Social need 

  •  They consist of the need for love, affection, belongingness, friendship and social acceptance. 
  • In organizations, informal groups, friends at work, employee clubs, satisfy social needs 

4. Esteem Need 

  • They can be external esteem and self-internal esteem need. 
  •  Internal esteem needs can be for self-respect, autonomy, and advancement. 
  •  External esteem needs can be for status, recognition, and prestige. 

5. Self-actualization 

  •   With self-actualization, the employee will be interested in achievement, growth, self-development, creativity, talent utilization and self-fulfilment. 

B. Kurt Lewin’s change theory 

If you have a large cube of ice but realize that what you want is a cone of ice, what do you do?  First, you must melt the ice to make it amenable to change (unfreeze). Then you must mould the iced water into the shape you want (change). Finally, you must solidify the new shape (refreeze). 

1. Unfreeze (By force) 

  • This first step of change involves preparing the organization to accept that change is necessary, which involves breaking down the existing status before you can build up a new way of operating. 
  • This first part of the change process is usually the most difficult and stressful. 
  • By forcing the organization to re-examine its core, you effectively create a (controlled) crisis, which in turn can build a strong motivation to seek out a new equilibrium. 
  • Without this motivation, you won’t get the build and participation necessary to effect any meaningful change. 

2. Change (By identification) 

  • The change stage is where people begin to resolve this uncertainty and look for new ways to do things. 
  • People start to believe and act in ways that support the new direction. 
  • The transition from unfreeze to change doesn’t happen overnight. People take time to time embrace the new direction. 

3. Refreeze (By Internalization) 

  • When the changes are taking shape and people have embraced the new ways of working, the organization is ready to refreeze. 
  • The outward signs of the refreeze are a stable organization chart, a consistent job description and so on. 
  • With a new sense of stability, employees feel confident and comfortable with a new way of working. 
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