- Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done and how, when, where, and with what resources it is to be done.
- Planning is a systemic method of trying to attain objectives for the future through the efficient and appropriate use of resources, available now and in the future.
- It is the process by which managers define goals and take necessary steps to ensure that these goals are achieved.
Types of planning
Planning can be classified into 3 different ways.
- According to managerial hierarchy
- According to use
- According to flexibility
1. According to managerial hierarchy
a) Strategic planning
- It gives idea of how to achieve the goal and is planning in relation to policy.
- These are long term plan for 5 or more year.
- They are prepared by top management and are based on environmental opportunities and threats. Example: second long term health plan.
b) Divisional / Tactical planning
- It specifies how overall goals are to be achieved.
- This planning is done by middle level management or medium years (1-5 years).
- It is prepared for each department and division.
c) Operational planning
- It defines as specific actions for implementing tactical plans.
- It is the action plan for each unit of health that is Health post, Primary Health Care.
- It is prepared by lower-level management and is of short term (annual, quarter, month).
2. According to use
a) Single use plan
- They are prepared to meet the needs of particular situation.
- They are prepared for non-respective activities such as project planning, budget planning etc.
b) Standing use plan
- They are developed for ongoing repetitive activities such as mission, goals, policies, procedures rules etc.
- Such plans are used over a long period of time.
3. According to flexibility
a) Specific plan
- They have clearly defined objectives.
- Specific procedures, specific budgets and specific schedule of activities are specified to reach the objective.
b) Flexible plan
- They are also known as directional plan.
- They provide general guidelines.
- They do not provide specific objectives or specific course of action.
- They can be changed according to the change in the environment.
Purpose of planning
- To match the limit resource with many problems.
- To estimate the wasteful expenditure and duplication of expenditure.
- To develop the best course of action to accomplish the desired objectives.
Planning Cycle (PIE Cycle)
- It is the first step of planning in which plan is formulated for the program.
- Plan is formulated in written form giving particular attention to the details.
- In this step the formulated plan is executed in practice.
- This is the time of putting plan of action into operation.
- It is the process of assuming the degree of success of particular program and identifying the limitations and problems which need timely treatment for further operation of the program.
- It is the process of determining the programs appropriateness, effectiveness, and success.
1. Situation analysis (what is the situation)
- Inverse the collection assessment and interpretation of information in such way as to provide a clear picture of health situation.
- The following type of information Can be included during planning process
- Demographic characters like a sex distribution
- Morbidity and mortality
- Look at the physical and social economic characteristics and its infrastructure
- Analyse the policy and political environment including existing health policy
- Analyse the health needs of the population
2) Priority setting: where we want to go?
- Priority Set a feasible within political, social climate and within the content of available resources.
- Laid down clear criteria for selection of problem example size of problem, severity of the problem and high mortality rate are used to prioritize.
- After that the objectives and goals are established.
3) Option appraisal
- This process Involves generation and assessment of various option for achieving the set objectives and targets.
- There is following criteria to sort list the alternative approach.
a) Examine the impact of health alternative approach
b) Examine the resource implication with each alternative approach example efficiency. cost efficiency and affordable.
c) Examine the flexibility of each approach to see the barriers from successful implementation
4) The programming and budgeting
- The detailed Complete plan Prepared in written form which includes who should perform what component, time frame and target population.
- The budget should also be specified here.
- This is the stage That transferring the broad plan into more specific timed and budget sets of task and activities.
- The Schedule will be developed during the period.
- The monitoring process will be carried out to ensure the implementation of activities according to work plan
- It consists of record keeping and reporting of the ongoing processes (day to day activity)
Registers are maintained and records are summarized into reports (monthly / trimester / annual)
- It is the process of accessing the degree of success of a particular program and identifying the limitation and problem which need timely treatment for further operation of the program.